The term bioinformatics was coined by Paulien Hogeweg and Ben Hesper in 1970. It involves Information Technology, Computers Science, and Biology that combined to analyze biological data and sequences. Bioinformatics is useful in many fields and has had ground-breaking research results. Three of the main areas in which this field of science and computer technology are applied, are medicine, Microbial Genome Applications, and agriculture.
Bioinformatics is used in 4 main areas of medicine:
Drug discovery – Bioinformatics was used to develop a three-dimensional structure of proteins. This development has aided in understanding how protein structure can influence drug discovery. It helps to fit chemicals to the protein structure for the best results.
Personal medicine – This is based on an individual’s own specific genetic make-up, family history, social and environmental circumstances, and biological pre-dispositions. Based on this information, personalized medicine and treatments are developed to give the individual the best possible medicinal treatments.
Preventive medicine – This has to do with preventing diseases and illnesses before they occur rather than curing them.
Gene therapy – This involves using gene addition, gene removal, or control of gene expression in an individual. This is done to correct, prevent, or remove a specific defect or disorder in a gene.
Microbial Genome Applications
There are 3 areas in Microbial Genome Applications that applies bioinformatics:
Waste clean-up – Bioinformatics helps to identify bacteria that are best to help with cleaning up genes and other biological elements.
Climate change – In this area bioinformatics helps scientists to develop abilities within living things to help them survive the effects of climate change.
Biotechnology – In this field, bioinformatics help to produce or modify organisms involved with food production or modification. It is useful to make food products less harmful, remove allergens, etc.
In agriculture, bioinformatics is applied in 2 main areas:
Crop improvement – Research is used to find ways to alter biological make-up in plants to improve crop yield and quality.
Insect resistance – Bioinformatics is applied to help plants be more resistant to the insects that naturally attack and destroy them.
These are just the main areas where bioinformatics is applied. It has many more possibilities and uses.